As its name suggests, the braking mechanism in a car is the process of braking; it is an obstacle to the rotation of the wheel to reduce the speed or stop completely. Today, most car manufacturers use a friction-type braking device, the principle of which is to organize the frictional force between rotating and stationary elements.
Usually, the main part of the brakes is in the inner cavity of the wheel itself. If the braking device is included in the transmission (behind the checkpoint), then the mechanism is called transmission.
Regardless of the location and shape of the rotating parts, all braking mechanisms are designed to create the maximum possible braking torque, not depending on the wear of the parts, the presence of condensation on the surface of the pads, or their degree of heating during friction. A prerequisite for the prompt operation of the mechanism is the device’s design with a minimum gap between two contacting surfaces. During long-term operation, the size of this gap will invariably increase due to wear.
General and clear overview of parts of the brake system
Structurally, the mechanism connects two elements - the brake device itself and its drive. Let's consider each of them separately.
Brake device in modern cars. The mechanism is characterized by the work of the moving and stationary parts, between which friction occurs, which ultimately reduces the car’s speed.
Depending on the shape of the rotating parts, two types of braking devices are distinguished: drum and disc. The main difference between them is that the moving elements of drum brakes are pads and bands, while disc brakes are only pads. The drum mechanism itself acts as a stationary (rotating) part.
A traditional disc brake has one disc that rotates and two pads, which are stationary and housed inside the caliper on either side. The caliper itself is securely fixed to the bracket. At the base of the caliper, there are working cylinders, which, at the moment of braking, touch the pads to the disc.
The main types of brake drives. The main purpose of this drive is to provide the ability to control the brake mechanism. Today there are five types of drives, each of which performs its functions in the car:
- Mechanical. Scope of application - exclusively in the parking system. This drive type combines several elements (traction system, levers, cables, tips, equalizers, etc.). It allows you to signal the parking brake to lock the vehicle in one place, even on an inclined plane. It is usually used in parking lots or yards when the car owner leaves the car overnight.
- Electric. The scope of application is also a parking system. In this case, the actuator receives a signal from the electric foot pedal.
- Hydraulic. The main and most common type of brake drive is used in a working system. The brake drive is a combination of several parts (brake pedal, brake booster, brake cylinder, cylinders on wheels, hoses, and pipes).
- Vacuum. This type of drive is also often found on modern cars. The essence of its operation is the same as that of the hydraulic one. However, the characteristic difference is that when the pedal is pressed, additional vacuum reinforcement is created.
- Combined. Also applicable for service braking systems only. The specificity of the work lies in the fact that after pressing the pedal, the brake cylinder presses on the brake fluid and forces it to flow under high pressure to the brake cylinders. The use of a double cylinder splits the high pressure into two circuits. Thus, if one of the circuits fails, the system will still fully function.
Simple Guide to Breaking Systems FAQ
- What are the types of braking systems?
To successfully and safely drive a car, you need to use the following types of brake systems:
- Working. This system provides a reduction in speed on the road and guarantees a complete stop of the vehicle.
- Parking. It is used to stabilize the position of the vehicle during parking for a long time.
- Spare. It is used if, for some objective reason, the working system has failed. Functionally, it works in the same way as the working one - that is, it brakes and stops the car. Structurally, it can be implemented as a fully automatic system or be part of a working system.
- What are the auxiliary mechanisms in the brake systems?
In modern cars, it is customary to use not only three types of brake systems but also various auxiliary mechanisms designed to enhance the effectiveness of braking. These are brake booster, ABS, emergency braking controller, electronic differential lock, and more. On our website, you can find a large number of car brakes parts, including auxiliary devices for the efficiency of the braking distance.